Living in the family in certain, relatively stable conditions, the child gradually adapts to the environmental conditions. Between the organism and the environment is established the right relationship, the adaptation of the organism to the surrounding influences. The child’s body gradually adapts to a certain temperature of the room, to the surrounding climate,
the nature of the food, etc. Under the influence of the systematic influences from others adult child, had formed different habits: he gets used to the regime, method of feeding, stacking, he formed certain relationships with parents, attachment to them.
If installed in the family order is for any reason modified, usually the child’s behavior temporarily disturbed. These violations are balanced behavior due to the fact that the baby is difficult to adapt to any changes, he can’t quickly slow down old ties, and instead also be formed new. Underdeveloped child’s adaptive mechanisms, in particular the weak inhibitory processes and the relatively low mobility of nervous processes. However, a child’s brain is very plastic, and if these changes living conditions are not as frequent and not very sharply disrupt the usual way of life, the child, with proper educational approach recovers quickly balanced behavior and leaves no negative effects, i.e. the child adapts to the new conditions of his life.
Analysis of the behavior of children in the first days of stay in child care shows that this process of adaptation, i.e., adaptation to new social conditions, not always and not all children can be easily and quickly. In many children, the adaptation process is accompanied by a number, though temporary, but serious breaches of conduct and General condition. Such violations include:
the appetite (not eating or malnutrition);
sleep disturbance (children can’t sleep, short sleep, interrupted);
changing emotional state (children cry a lot, get annoyed).
Sometimes you can mention a deeper disorder:
the increased body temperature;
the changing nature of the chair;
violation of some of the acquired skills (the child stops to ask for a pot, his speech is retarded, etc.).
The duration of adaptation to new social conditions and the nature of children’s behavior in the first days of stay in child care depend on individual characteristics. The children of the same age behave differently: some in the first day crying, refusing to eat, to sleep, to each proposal responsible adult with a storm of protest, but just the other day watching the kids play, eat well and quietly go to bed, others on the first day of calm on the outside, somewhat inhibited, without objection, comply with the requirements of educators, and the next day crying, breaking up with the mother, ill eat in the following days, do not participate in the game, and begin to feel good only after 6-8 days or even later.
Below is the information, following which parents and carers will make the adjustment period easier and painless.
So what should know and be able parents:
The more often your child will communicate with adults and children in the apartment, in the yard, on the Playground, around the house i.e. in a variety of settings, the faster and more confident he will be able to transfer the acquired skills in the kindergarten setting.
Informal kindergarten: walks through the territory and the accompanying story about the garden, and the story should be very colorful and undeniably positive. Try in your story to show your child how fun and nice to other children in kindergarten.
Each child received requires careful individual approach, and to adopt children should be gradual, for 2-3 people, with short breaks (2-3 days).
In the first days the child should stay in a group not more than 2 chasov.
For first visits are recommended hours allocated for walks, games. This makes it easier to define the behavior of the child, identify the correct approach and to remove the emotional stress from the first contacts.
The establishment of emotional contact of the child and the caregiver should be in familiar surroundings in the presence of a loved one. On the first day of short-term familiarity with the caregiver, aimed at creating interest in the kindergarten, on the establishment of contact between the child and the caregiver in the new situation.
Very useful trips for the group, involving the teacher, parents and child.
Negative impact on the course of adaptation, as well as on the behavior of children admitted to the children’s institution has a lack of unity of the system of education in the family and in child care.
before taking to bring the family to the characteristics of the kindergarten: add elements of the regime, to train the child into independence, so that he could himself take care of themselves, etc.;
in the early days not to breach available to the child of habit, gradually change the mode and to accustom the child to a new way of life.
Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium: pre-emptive and frequent localization – the respiratory organs, primarily the lungs. But can also affect the lymph nodes, serous membranes, digestive tract, urogenital system, skin, bones and joints.
Tuberculosis is an international and national public health problem, because in the world become ill with TB each year over 8 million people and about 3 million die each year from tuberculosis. In the Nizhny Novgorod region in 2013 again fell ill with tuberculosis 1555 people (in 2012 – 1477). Among them registered 907 patients excreting bacteria into the external environment.
The causative agent is Mycobacterium tuberculosis is highly resilient and has a long life in the environment.
The main source of infection – TB people or sick animal. In a healthy organism mycobacteria often fall through the respiratory tract with droplets of mucus and phlegm, which are thrown by patients during talking, sneezing and coughing. Infection occurs when eating dairy products from patients with tuberculosis of animals.
The development of tuberculosis are contributing factors that weaken the body’s defenses: overwork, malnutrition, and chronic diseases like lung diseases, diabetes, peptic ulcer. Long term Smoking increases the risk of TB infection by 30%, and alcohol abuse – in 18 times.
The first signs of tuberculosis are: fatigue and the appearance of General weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss, increased sweating, especially in the morning, a long period of slight fever, cough or cough with phlegm, and blood. But even these signs are not always appear. Very long a person feels healthy, attributing fatigue and weakness on a high tension life. So often the call to the doctor is already at an advanced form of the disease.
In adults tuberculosis can be identified using x-ray method of examination, and by examining sputum and urine for the presence of mycobacteria. In children tuberculosis revealed by the annual statement of the tuberculin tests (sample test). Dodging adults and especially children from tuberculosis surveys leads to the identification of their severe, advanced forms of the disease, difficult to treat and often ending with disabilities and death.
In connection with the annual registration of newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis in adults and children, combating the infection has ceased to be a matter only of doctors. This applies to almost everyone. Therefore, of particular importance in this disease is prevention and early detection.
Effective method of prevention of tuberculosis in children are primarily anti-tuberculosis vaccination (BCG and Bsim), starting with the hospital. Not vaccinated children are at great risk of Contracting tuberculosis. Therefore each parent for the health of their children should at least 1 time in 2 years, verified through fluoroscopy, to examine all family members, first of all, coughing. This study is conducted based outpatient clinics located at the place of residence free of charge. On the initiative of the Global programme of tuberculosis control in the who annually from 1982 March 24 is world Day against tuberculosis with the aim of attracting the world community to this serious issue.